Vore Buffalo Jump Into An Archeological Dig

Vore Buffalo Jump Into An Archeological Dig

In the 1970’s the engineers looking to extend interstate 90 West found a giant sinkhole on the Vore family lands.  When they surveyed the sinkhole in order to fill it up with concrete, they found that it was a giant pit of bison remains.  Needless to say, the engineers moved the interstate a little bit south and the archeologists set up camp.

The Vore sinkhole site is massive.  Although only a small percentage of the pit has been excavated so far, archeologists expect to find the remnants of approximately 20,000 bison as well as the tools used to trap and hunt those bison.

Vore buffalo jump bison remains

Image: Scott Jones

On our way to Devils Tower National Monument, we stopped by the Vore Buffalo Jump. This archeological site is well worth a quick stop to learn about how Native Americans lived in this area hundreds of years ago.

How To Hunt Bison Without Horses

The Vore Buffalo Jump was used by several tribes of Native Americans from the Great Plains for approximately 300 years from the 16th to the 18th centuries.  Historically, this area would have had giant herds of bison roaming between the Great Plains and the Black Hills.  The Native American tribes would engage in a communal hunt which would drive a herd of buffalo towards a cliff with the sinkhole.  The buffalo would stampede and then fall to their death into the hole.

site of Vore Buffalo Jump

Keep in mind also that this hunt was done without horses!  Instead, the Native Americans used wolf dogs.

We learned that Native Americans had bred wolves with dogs to create wolf dogs.  Either female dogs were tethered outside of the camp so the wolves could breed with them or the wolves would sneak into the camp and mate with the dogs.  The wolf dogs were used by Native Americans for lots of domestic activities such as hunting, hauling and guarding.

It was only in the late 18th century that Native Americans in the Plains were introduced to horses which had been brought to the New World by the Spanish.  It took all those years for horses to filter their way to the Plains. I had assumed the Native Americans had always had horses because it is so indelibly linked with the image created by Hollywood.

The Vore site is considered sacred to the Native Americans of the area and is still used today for ceremonies.  In fact, shortly before we arrived, tribal leaders had conducted a sacred ceremony for which a teepee had been erected.

teepee at Vore Buffalo Jump

Teepee At Vore Buffalo Jump

What Can You Do With Dead Bison?

The Native Americans used buffalo for a number of uses other than as food or clothing.  In fact, every part of the buffalo was used.  My children were fascinated with all the different uses for the random parts of a buffalo.

learning about buffalo parts

Learning about the uses for different parts of the bison

Some interesting facts on bison hunting:

  • Several hundred members of a tribe worked together to kill, clean and process bison quickly and efficiently.
  • Meat was preserved by curing them in the sun sort of like jerky is today.
  • The Native Americans hunted in the autumn in order to ensure there was enough food and materials to get them through the long, harsh winters.

You can pretty much use the entire bison carcass for something.  For example:

bison parts

For little kids, there is a sandbox where they can sift through sand to find arrowheads. It’s entertaining for kids who’ve probably been stuck in a car for hours.  You either return the arrowheads or pay a $1 for any you keep.

Details for visiting the Vore Buffalo Jump:

The Vore Buffalo Jump is a short detour off I-90 near the Wyoming and South Dakota border. Easy to find with clearly marked signs, it is open daily during the peak summer months.  There is an entrance fee.

Vore Buffalo Jump in Wyoming

There is a visitor’s centre and then the actual pit is a further walk down a ramp.  Make sure you see the pit as it’s really cool!  Also, there are good restrooms which are few and far between in this part of the world.


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Remembering Racism and War Hysteria At Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp

Remembering Racism and War Hysteria At Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp

Turning off the highway, we drove up and down an isolated road trying to find the Heart Mountain Interpretative Center.  The land was flat and unremarkable. The sun beat down on the parched earth.  It really felt like the middle of nowhere. I can imagine that was exactly how the Japanese-Americans who arrived at the Heart Mountain Japanese internment camp in 1942 would have felt.

Heart Mountain Relocation Center

Image: Nicholas Brown

We eventually located the black barrack style building which looked like nothing special.  We had repeatedly overlooked it as we were driving.  Although intentionally bleak and uninviting from the outside, the Heart Mountain interpretive centre is informative and captivating.

The History of Japanese Immigration to the United States

Japanese immigration to the United States began in 1868 when workers were imported for the sugar cane plantations in Hawaii.  The Japanese immigrants joined previous Chinese and Portuguese workers.  As the last of the immigrants, the Japanese were at the bottom of the totem pole. Working as field hands, the Japanese worked 10-12 hours a day in gruelling conditions.   The Japanese became a tight-knit community because the plantation owners segregated their workers by ethnicity.

Initially, many Japanese immigrants came with the hopes of making their fortune and returning home.  In 1868, as part of Emperor Meiji’s modernisation plans for feudal Japan, he disbanded the prestigious samurai class and cut off their pensions. At the time, Japan had 1.9 million samurai.  Suddenly lots of able-bodied men were left without any source of livelihood. At the same time, Emperor Meiji also relaxed the rules on his subjects leaving the country.  By 1890, over 1200 Japanese had made the journey to Hawaii.

An exhibit on the legacy of Heart Mountain at the Japanese American Museum

Like other immigrants to the USA, Japanese-Americans came with their hopes and dreams for a better future.

Japanese immigration increased after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 lead to the prohibition of Chinese labourers. From the Hawaiian plantations, eventually the Japanese moved onto mainland USA to work on railroads, farms, fishing boats, oil fields and mines. Despite heavy racism, some of the Japanese owned their own businesses or farms.  For example, the E.D. Hashimoto Company established by a Japanese immigrant in Salt Lake city provided railroad labor to the Western Pacific Railroad.

The first generation (issei) who were Japan-born had never been allowed to become citizens. Under American law at the time, only people of European and African descent could become naturalised citizens. (Japan-born people could not become naturalised citizens until 1952.) By 1940, the nisei (second generation) of Japanese-Americans were integrated into American society and even had children of their own, the sansei (third generation).

Why were Japanese-Americans Forced into Relocation Camps?

President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in February of 1942 as a result of the racism and hysteria prompted by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour.  The attack on Pearl Harbour marked the American entry into World War II.  This law lead to the forcible internment of tens of thousands of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the USA onto 10 relocation camps.  Like the Heart Mountain internment camp, these camps were located effectively in the middle of nowhere USA.

executive order 9066

The Japanese-Americans were seen as a threat to national security because of the fear they could be conspiring with the enemy.  The sign below was put on a store owned by a Japanese American born in California and educated at the University of California Berkeley.  He still felt the need to publicly state his loyalties.

Japanese American grocery sign

This sign reaffirming the Japanese-American owner’s loyalties did not do him any good.

Japanese Americans were given one week to report to the collection centres which would send them onwards to the interment centres.  Their lives were uprooted and they didn’t have time to sell off their businesses or dispose of assets.  Many people left their personal possessions behind which were quickly stolen by remaining locals.

The Visitor’s Center has a movie by Academy-Award winner Steven Okazaki entitled “All We Could Carry” which is a really good introduction to the rest of the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center.  The film title is a reference to what each person could bring with them when they left their homes – one suitcase.

Japanese American family with their belongings

The Heart Mountain Relocation Center

The Japanese interment camp in Cody Wyoming was named for Heart Mountain Butte which you could see a few miles in the distance.  The Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp has been reopened as a museum and gallery to remember this unfortunate period in American history. The Heart Mountain relocation center was functional from 1942 until 1945.

At its height, the Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp held over 10,000 Japanese Americans making it the third largest town in Wyoming.  Approximately one-third of the occupants were Issei but the remainder were American citizens.  All of the Heart Mountain inmates were of Japanese descent except one woman.  She was a Caucasian who refused to part from her Japanese-American husband.

Although the Japanese internment camp in Wyoming was supposed to be open-gated, the state governor warned the racism of the locals would make it dangerous for the Japanese.  The 46,000 acre camp was then surrounded by barbed wire, guard towers and searchlights.

guard tower at Heart Mountain

Guard Tower remaining at the camp

Conditions at the Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp were basic. People were housed in barracks and even families were housed in single rooms.

heart mountain relocation centre

Image: @AndrewGHayes

Although there was a stove in the room for heat, the Japanese-Americans living inside were used to a more temperate climate in California. The Heart Mountain relocation camp was located at an elevation of 4600 feet and the winter temperatures dipped to -30 degrees! Most of the Japanese Americans came from Los Angeles and Santa Clara (about 9000 people). They must have felt frozen in the Wyoming winters.  The wind would have whipped through the buildings.  The barracks had been hastily constructed, framed in timber and wrapped in black-tar paper.

The Heart Mountain Relocation Center

The barracks at the Heart Mountain Relocation Center were made of timber and paper.

recreation of a family room at heart mountain

Re-creation of a family’s room at the Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp

Daily Life at the Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp

Family life was disrupted in a major way.  For example, Japanese families have a tradition of respecting their elders.  In the camps, however, the Issei had less rights than their American-born children because they were not American citizens.  In another example, cafeteria-style eating meant that families no longer shared meals together.

Meals at the Heart Mountain Interment Camp were served in a cafeteria setting.  Children were sent to schools that were created in the camp. Even a hospital was set up in the camp to take care of the internees needs.

One of the most distressing elements for the women was that the camps had communal bathrooms. With no doors for privacy, many women felt humiliated using the toilets.

Barracks toilets

Image: Bob Perry

The Drafting of Japanese-Americans at Internment Camps

The American government extended the drafting of soldiers to the Japanese living in the camps even though their constitutional rights as Americans were being trampled. Needless to say, a group of men resisted the draft, were put on trial and imprisoned for disobedience.  They were eventually pardoned by President Truman after the war ended.  The 800 men who did join the war were part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.  The 442nd became the most decorated military unit in US history.  Of the soldiers recruited from Heart Mountain, 11 men were killed and 52 men were wounded.  Two men received the Medal of Honor, the highest military award an American soldier can receive.

Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp

An explanation by one of the Japanese-Americans on why he resisted being drafted into the war.

The Closing of the Heart Mountain Internment Camp

After the war ended, the Japanese Americans were told to disperse and given $25 and a one-way train ticket.  They had lost all of their pre-war businesses and other assets so technically they had nowhere to go.

After their Heart Mountain internment at the end of World War II, the Japanese-Americans were told to scram.

After their Heart Mountain internment at the end of World War II, the Japanese-Americans were told to scram.

The state of Wyoming passed laws that prevented the Japanese-Americans who had been subject to the Heart Mountain internment from staying in Wyoming.  As part of the legacy of Heart Mountain, you can read the stories of people reintegrating back into mainstream American society.  Those stories are equally heartbreaking with tales of suicide and despair.  Who would believe that for some of the older Japanese-Americans the internment days were better than what these people faced reintegrating back into American society?

Heart Mountain Japanese Relocation Center

The Japanese American National Museum

If you are not in Wyoming, the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles has great exhibits on the Japanese American internment during World War II. We saw one exhibit which was dedicated to the Japanese-American farm labourers.  Many Japanese Americans had become seasonal farm labourers in the American heartland. The pay was better than at the internment camps.  In addition, many of the Japanese Americans had experience working in agriculture.

One of the barracks from the Heart Mountain Japanese interment camp was dismantled and brought to the Museum in the 1990’s.

The Heart Mountain barracks transplanted to the Japanese American Museum in Los Angeles

A Heart Mountain barrack is maintained at the Japanese American Museum in Los Angeles to remember the legacy of Heart Mountain.

Tips for Visiting Heart Mountain Interpretive Center:

The Heart Mountain Interpretative Center is located between the towns of Powell and Cody in Wyoming at the intersection of Highway 19a and Road 19. Look for a barn-like low building which blends into the landscape fairly close to the intersection. Adults pay an admission fee but children under the age of 12 are free.  The centre is open daily during the summer but has limited open days during the winter.

I think perhaps my 8 year old children were a bit young to understand the injustice of what happened at Heart Mountain.  Even though they knew about World War II because we had visited the D-Day beaches at Normandy, they didn’t quite grasp the horror of having someone’s life uprooted in a week.

My children thought it would be cool to live in a camp with all their friends but they did think it was unfair that they would have to lose all their possessions.  Actor and activist, George Takei, 5 years old when he was sent to an internment camp in Arkansas, has spoken of how little he understood of the experience as a child.

Another activist and professor of law at the University of Hawaii, Mari Matsuda was a child when her family was sent to Heart Mountain internment camp.   Her father volunteered for combat duty, and the family blamed the press, specifically the Hearst newspapers, for inciting war hysteria and racism.

The Heart Mountain Interpretative Center is a useful reminder of a bleak period in American history where American citizens were illegally detained and their civil rights trampled.

Practical Info To Know Before You Go

Check out the website for the Heart Mountain Interpretive Centre for opening times.  You will definitely need to have your own car.  We booked our rental car through Hertz of which we are Gold Card members.  We stayed at the charming Chamberlin Inn in Cody, Wyoming.  You may also want to consider the historic hotel, Buffalo Bill’s Irma Hotel where we had a nice dinner.  Unfortunately, the Irma doesn’t allow children to stay at the hotel.

Further Reading:

[easyazon_link identifier=”0295974842″ locale=”US” tag=”jg20-20″]Years of Infamy[/easyazon_link] by Michi Weglen [easyazon_link identifier=”0439569923″ locale=”US” tag=”jg20-20″]Dear Miss Breed[/easyazon_link] by Joanne Oppenheim [easyazon_link identifier=”0345505344″ locale=”US” tag=”jg20-20″]Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet[/easyazon_link] by Jamie Ford [easyazon_link identifier=”0142424374″ locale=”US” tag=”jg20-20″]A Diamond in the Desert[/easyazon_link] by Kathryn Fitzmaurice


Cattle Baron Posh at The Nagle Warren Mansion in Cheyenne

Cattle Baron Posh at The Nagle Warren Mansion in Cheyenne

One of the beautiful historical buildings we stayed at in the American West was the Nagle Warren Mansion in Cheyenne in Wyoming.  This historic building is now run as an upscale bed and breakfast.  The house is one of the few mansions from the 19th century still standing in Cheyenne when the city was one of the richest cities in the world for its size.

Warren Nagle Mansion

The Nagle Warren Mansion has a great location within a 10 minute walk of downtown Cheyenne and Depot Plaza.  Interestingly, the U.S. Marshall’s office was moved from the mansion’s location to make way for the house.  With Cheyenne’s Hell on Wheels reputation, I’ll bet that Marshall’s office saw a lot of action.

The mansion was built in 1888 at a cost of $50,000 (twice the projected cost) for an Erasmus Nagle.  Mr. Nagle had his hand in many pots and owned interests in everything from grocery stores to gold mines.  The plans for the house were drawn up by the same architect who did the Cheyenne capitol building and a lot of the marble facade were offcuts from the Cheyenne capitol building too.  Nagle clearly intended for the house to be an impressive addition to the mansions of Cattle Baron Row.  Unfortunately, he died a couple of years later and left the mansion to his widow.

brass fireplace

Nagle’s widow sold it in 1910 to F.E. Warren, the first governor of Wyoming who later served as its Senator to the U.S. Congress for many years.  The Warrens hosted many dignitaries at the house, including Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft.  After Senator Warren’s death in 1929, the building did a short stint as a YMCA and then eventually found its way into private hands.  The current owner, Jim Osterfoss, bought the mansion in 1997 and turned into a B&B post-renovation.  Jim is very much on site and a cheerful, welcoming presence in the house.

warren angle living room

living room

The mansion is clearly a landmark in the Cheyenne scene and entered the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 .  It was a bit strange having our B&B explained to us when we did the Cheyenne Trolley Tour!  They also did an ice-cream social on the Saturday for the neighbourhood where people would come by and have ice cream on the porch while listening to an accordion player.  My children thought it was great!

ice cream social

ice cream social on the porch

The interior of the mansion has many original features and is very fancy.  As befitting a cattle baron mansion, the ceilings are carved leather and the windows have stained glass and crystal panes.  Other details include cherry wall panelling, brass fireplaces, ornate doorknobs and parquet flooring.

The mansion is furnished in keeping with its Victorian origins.  Each room is individually furnished and named.  We had a charming writing desk in a nook in our room.

Although a bit like staying in a museum, nothing felt precious and our children were made to feel comfortable.  This B&B was our first stay in our Wild West road trip and it really got us into the spirit of the trip.  The garden was small but really pretty.  It was a nice place to hang out in the shade away from the Cheyenne sun.



The mansion was busy on the weekend we were in residence.  There were lots of couples off for a romantic getaway and we were the only ones who had brought our children. We were supposed to have interconnecting rooms but the key for the connecting room was lost.  I’m somewhat paranoid about having the children out of sight on their own.  So Mr. N and I wound up sleeping with a child each in the 2 rooms.  Hardly a romantic weekend but my daughter and I enjoyed our impromptu slumber party!

Breakfast was served in the dining room.  Everyone shared a big table which would not have been my first choice.  Supervising appropriate breakfast behaviour in the children is way too much effort on vacation.  The people we met at breakfast were friendly and were visiting from all over the United States.  The breakfast itself was quite fancy (poached egg on a potato concoction).  Needless, to say the children had cereal but we enjoyed our fancy breakfast.

warren angle dining room

dining room

The Nagle Warren Mansion has 12 guest rooms each with their own bathroom.  If you are in Cheyenne, staying at this beautiful piece of history is definitely recommended.