In the 1970’s the engineers looking to extend interstate 90 West found a giant sinkhole on the Vore family lands. When they surveyed the sinkhole in order to fill it up with concrete, they found that it was a giant pit of bison remains. Needless to say, the engineers moved the interstate a little bit south and the archeologists set up camp.
The Vore sinkhole site is massive. Although only a small percentage of the pit has been excavated so far, archeologists expect to find the remnants of approximately 20,000 bison as well as the tools used to trap and hunt those bison.
Image: Scott Jones
On our way to Devils Tower National Monument, we stopped by the Vore Buffalo Jump. This archeological site is well worth a quick stop to learn about how Native Americans lived in this area hundreds of years ago.
How To Hunt Bison Without Horses
The Vore Buffalo Jump was used by several tribes of Native Americans from the Great Plains for approximately 300 years from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Historically, this area would have had giant herds of bison roaming between the Great Plains and the Black Hills. The Native American tribes would engage in a communal hunt which would drive a herd of buffalo towards a cliff with the sinkhole. The buffalo would stampede and then fall to their death into the hole.
Keep in mind also that this hunt was done without horses! Instead, the Native Americans used wolf dogs.
We learned that Native Americans had bred wolves with dogs to create wolf dogs. Either female dogs were tethered outside of the camp so the wolves could breed with them or the wolves would sneak into the camp and mate with the dogs. The wolf dogs were used by Native Americans for lots of domestic activities such as hunting, hauling and guarding.
It was only in the late 18th century that Native Americans in the Plains were introduced to horses which had been brought to the New World by the Spanish. It took all those years for horses to filter their way to the Plains. I had assumed the Native Americans had always had horses because it is so indelibly linked with the image created by Hollywood.
The Vore site is considered sacred to the Native Americans of the area and is still used today for ceremonies. In fact, shortly before we arrived, tribal leaders had conducted a sacred ceremony for which a teepee had been erected.
Teepee At Vore Buffalo Jump
What Can You Do With Dead Bison?
The Native Americans used buffalo for a number of uses other than as food or clothing. In fact, every part of the buffalo was used. My children were fascinated with all the different uses for the random parts of a buffalo.
Learning about the uses for different parts of the bison
Some interesting facts on bison hunting:
- Several hundred members of a tribe worked together to kill, clean and process bison quickly and efficiently.
- Meat was preserved by curing them in the sun sort of like jerky is today.
- The Native Americans hunted in the autumn in order to ensure there was enough food and materials to get them through the long, harsh winters.
You can pretty much use the entire bison carcass for something. For example:
For little kids, there is a sandbox where they can sift through sand to find arrowheads. It’s entertaining for kids who’ve probably been stuck in a car for hours. You either return the arrowheads or pay a $1 for any you keep.
Details for visiting the Vore Buffalo Jump:
The Vore Buffalo Jump is a short detour off I-90 near the Wyoming and South Dakota border. Easy to find with clearly marked signs, it is open daily during the peak summer months. There is an entrance fee.
There is a visitor’s centre and then the actual pit is a further walk down a ramp. Make sure you see the pit as it’s really cool! Also, there are good restrooms which are few and far between in this part of the world.
Turning off the highway, we drove up and down an isolated road trying to find the Heart Mountain Interpretative Center. The land was flat and unremarkable. The sun beat down on the parched earth. It really felt like the middle of nowhere. I can imagine that was exactly how the Japanese-Americans who arrived at the Heart Mountain Japanese internment camp in 1942 would have felt.
Image: Nicholas Brown
We eventually located the black barrack style building which looked like nothing special. We had repeatedly overlooked it as we were driving. Although intentionally bleak and uninviting from the outside, the Heart Mountain interpretive centre is informative and captivating.
The History of Japanese Immigration to the United States
Japanese immigration to the United States began in 1868 when workers were imported for the sugar cane plantations in Hawaii. The Japanese immigrants joined previous Chinese and Portuguese workers. As the last of the immigrants, the Japanese were at the bottom of the totem pole. Working as field hands, the Japanese worked 10-12 hours a day in gruelling conditions. The Japanese became a tight-knit community because the plantation owners segregated their workers by ethnicity.
Initially, many Japanese immigrants came with the hopes of making their fortune and returning home. In 1868, as part of Emperor Meiji’s modernisation plans for feudal Japan, he disbanded the prestigious samurai class and cut off their pensions. At the time, Japan had 1.9 million samurai. Suddenly lots of able-bodied men were left without any source of livelihood. At the same time, Emperor Meiji also relaxed the rules on his subjects leaving the country. By 1890, over 1200 Japanese had made the journey to Hawaii.
Like other immigrants to the USA, Japanese-Americans came with their hopes and dreams for a better future.
Japanese immigration increased after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 lead to the prohibition of Chinese labourers. From the Hawaiian plantations, eventually the Japanese moved onto mainland USA to work on railroads, farms, fishing boats, oil fields and mines. Despite heavy racism, some of the Japanese owned their own businesses or farms. For example, the E.D. Hashimoto Company established by a Japanese immigrant in Salt Lake city provided railroad labor to the Western Pacific Railroad.
The first generation (issei) who were Japan-born had never been allowed to become citizens. Under American law at the time, only people of European and African descent could become naturalised citizens. (Japan-born people could not become naturalised citizens until 1952.) By 1940, the nisei (second generation) of Japanese-Americans were integrated into American society and even had children of their own, the sansei (third generation).
Why were Japanese-Americans Forced into Relocation Camps?
President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in February of 1942 as a result of the racism and hysteria prompted by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. The attack on Pearl Harbour marked the American entry into World War II. This law lead to the forcible internment of tens of thousands of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the USA onto 10 relocation camps. Like the Heart Mountain internment camp, these camps were located effectively in the middle of nowhere USA.
The Japanese-Americans were seen as a threat to national security because of the fear they could be conspiring with the enemy. The sign below was put on a store owned by a Japanese American born in California and educated at the University of California Berkeley. He still felt the need to publicly state his loyalties.
This sign reaffirming the Japanese-American owner’s loyalties did not do him any good.
Japanese Americans were given one week to report to the collection centres which would send them onwards to the interment centres. Their lives were uprooted and they didn’t have time to sell off their businesses or dispose of assets. Many people left their personal possessions behind which were quickly stolen by remaining locals.
The Visitor’s Center has a movie by Academy-Award winner Steven Okazaki entitled “All We Could Carry” which is a really good introduction to the rest of the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center. The film title is a reference to what each person could bring with them when they left their homes – one suitcase.
The Heart Mountain Relocation Center
The Japanese interment camp in Cody Wyoming was named for Heart Mountain Butte which you could see a few miles in the distance. The Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp has been reopened as a museum and gallery to remember this unfortunate period in American history. The Heart Mountain relocation center was functional from 1942 until 1945.
At its height, the Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp held over 10,000 Japanese Americans making it the third largest town in Wyoming. Approximately one-third of the occupants were Issei but the remainder were American citizens. All of the Heart Mountain inmates were of Japanese descent except one woman. She was a Caucasian who refused to part from her Japanese-American husband.
Although the Japanese internment camp in Wyoming was supposed to be open-gated, the state governor warned the racism of the locals would make it dangerous for the Japanese. The 46,000 acre camp was then surrounded by barbed wire, guard towers and searchlights.
Guard Tower remaining at the camp
Conditions at the Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp were basic. People were housed in barracks and even families were housed in single rooms.
Although there was a stove in the room for heat, the Japanese-Americans living inside were used to a more temperate climate in California. The Heart Mountain relocation camp was located at an elevation of 4600 feet and the winter temperatures dipped to -30 degrees! Most of the Japanese Americans came from Los Angeles and Santa Clara (about 9000 people). They must have felt frozen in the Wyoming winters. The wind would have whipped through the buildings. The barracks had been hastily constructed, framed in timber and wrapped in black-tar paper.
The barracks at the Heart Mountain Relocation Center were made of timber and paper.
Re-creation of a family’s room at the Heart Mountain Japanese Internment Camp
Daily Life at the Heart Mountain Japanese Interment Camp
Family life was disrupted in a major way. For example, Japanese families have a tradition of respecting their elders. In the camps, however, the Issei had less rights than their American-born children because they were not American citizens. In another example, cafeteria-style eating meant that families no longer shared meals together.
Meals at the Heart Mountain Interment Camp were served in a cafeteria setting. Children were sent to schools that were created in the camp. Even a hospital was set up in the camp to take care of the internees needs.
One of the most distressing elements for the women was that the camps had communal bathrooms. With no doors for privacy, many women felt humiliated using the toilets.
Image: Bob Perry
The Drafting of Japanese-Americans at Internment Camps
The American government extended the drafting of soldiers to the Japanese living in the camps even though their constitutional rights as Americans were being trampled. Needless to say, a group of men resisted the draft, were put on trial and imprisoned for disobedience. They were eventually pardoned by President Truman after the war ended. The 800 men who did join the war were part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. The 442nd became the most decorated military unit in US history. Of the soldiers recruited from Heart Mountain, 11 men were killed and 52 men were wounded. Two men received the Medal of Honor, the highest military award an American soldier can receive.
An explanation by one of the Japanese-Americans on why he resisted being drafted into the war.
The Closing of the Heart Mountain Internment Camp
After the war ended, the Japanese Americans were told to disperse and given $25 and a one-way train ticket. They had lost all of their pre-war businesses and other assets so technically they had nowhere to go.
After their Heart Mountain internment at the end of World War II, the Japanese-Americans were told to scram.
The state of Wyoming passed laws that prevented the Japanese-Americans who had been subject to the Heart Mountain internment from staying in Wyoming. As part of the legacy of Heart Mountain, you can read the stories of people reintegrating back into mainstream American society. Those stories are equally heartbreaking with tales of suicide and despair. Who would believe that for some of the older Japanese-Americans the internment days were better than what these people faced reintegrating back into American society?
The Japanese American National Museum
If you are not in Wyoming, the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles has great exhibits on the Japanese American internment during World War II. We saw one exhibit which was dedicated to the Japanese-American farm labourers. Many Japanese Americans had become seasonal farm labourers in the American heartland. The pay was better than at the internment camps. In addition, many of the Japanese Americans had experience working in agriculture.
One of the barracks from the Heart Mountain Japanese interment camp was dismantled and brought to the Museum in the 1990’s.
A Heart Mountain barrack is maintained at the Japanese American Museum in Los Angeles to remember the legacy of Heart Mountain.
Tips for Visiting Heart Mountain Interpretive Center:
The Heart Mountain Interpretative Center is located between the towns of Powell and Cody in Wyoming at the intersection of Highway 19a and Road 19. Look for a barn-like low building which blends into the landscape fairly close to the intersection. Adults pay an admission fee but children under the age of 12 are free. The centre is open daily during the summer but has limited open days during the winter.
I think perhaps my 8 year old children were a bit young to understand the injustice of what happened at Heart Mountain. Even though they knew about World War II because we had visited the D-Day beaches at Normandy, they didn’t quite grasp the horror of having someone’s life uprooted in a week.
My children thought it would be cool to live in a camp with all their friends but they did think it was unfair that they would have to lose all their possessions. Actor and activist, George Takei, 5 years old when he was sent to an internment camp in Arkansas, has spoken of how little he understood of the experience as a child.
Another activist and professor of law at the University of Hawaii, Mari Matsuda was a child when her family was sent to Heart Mountain internment camp. Her father volunteered for combat duty, and the family blamed the press, specifically the Hearst newspapers, for inciting war hysteria and racism.
The Heart Mountain Interpretative Center is a useful reminder of a bleak period in American history where American citizens were illegally detained and their civil rights trampled.
Practical Info To Know Before You Go
Check out the website for the Heart Mountain Interpretive Centre for opening times. You will definitely need to have your own car. We booked our rental car through Hertz of which we are Gold Card members. We stayed at the charming Chamberlin Inn in Cody, Wyoming. You may also want to consider the historic hotel, Buffalo Bill’s Irma Hotel where we had a nice dinner. Unfortunately, the Irma doesn’t allow children to stay at the hotel.
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My family and I are standing outside a gas chamber on death row at Wyoming Frontier Prison. The whole thing is made of stainless steel (the better to hose it clean with) and the original chair with its leather restraints sits isolated in the middle.
When the guide asks if anyone would like to sit in the chair, my 8 year old son is game. He has barely hopped onto the chair when I see his face crumple into tears. A teenager who is also on the tour has slammed the steel door shut locking him in the gas chamber. I go into mama tiger mode and quickly rescue my son. It was only a few minutes but I could have killed that older kid. In doing so, I would have joined a long history of murder and mayhem at the prison.
The Town of Rawlings
The town of Rawlings in Wyoming is a small town with not much going for it in terms of tourist spots. It’s main claim to tourist fame is that it is a very good stopping point halfway between other places that you may want to visit – Denver International Airport to the South and Yellowstone National Park to the north.
Rawlings was famous for being the home of the Wyoming Frontier Prison from 1901-1981. During its 80 years of existence, the prison was housed some of the roughest, toughest men in Wyoming. Unlike the Philadelphia prison we visited which was based on Quaker principles of penitence and reform, the Wyoming Frontier Prison was all about meting out punishment. The unrenovated prison really gives a sense of the stark conditions faced by the prisoners.
The Wyoming Frontier Museum
The prison is now a museum and listed on the National Registry of Historic Places. We stayed in the charming historic Ferris Mansion B&B nearby and thought we might as well visit this piece of frontier history. The museum gets approximately 15000 people visiting annually. It was a completely fascinating look into the lawlessness of the Frontier.
Our tour guide, a local high school kid, relished in telling us about the prison’s dark past.
- The architect who created the prison also designed Alcatraz in California.
- The original cells were small and dark. There was one line of cells that had no natural light either day or night. Can you imagine? It was luck of the draw who was put into those cells.
The guards stood watch on walkways on the top right.
- There were nine men executed by gallows at the prison using the do-it-yourself Julien Gallows mechanism. Basically, the condemned would stand on a trap door which would open due to his weight and the man wouldfall down and break his neck. The last man to be so hung did not weigh enough to break his neck. They added weights to his feet but that still wasn’t heavy enough. Finally one of the guards had to hold his legs and fall down with him to provide the necessary weight.
At a mere 112 lbs, this man didn’t weigh enough for the gallows to work effectively.
- After this travesty with the gallows, a gas chamber was installed. Five men were executed using poison gas until this procedure too ended in tragedy. The final round of men condemned to death row had been secretly digging themselves out of the building at night using matches for light in the dark. They formed a line where they would pass the dirt that was dug out and hide it in the building’s ceilings. Unfortunately, one night the man digging the hole hit the gas line and they blew up in spectacular fashion.
- The guides will let you sit in the actual chair of the gas chamber if you so wish.
- The prison held 13,500 prisoners over the years including 11 women. The women were not segregated from the men.
Someone tried to cheer up the dining hall with painted walls.
- The most severe punishment was being put in “The Hole” – a small windowless cell which was so small the prisoner had to stand for days. The prisoner was given enough food to survive but otherwise left naked in the dark to stew in his own bodily functions.
The ultimate punishment in an already harsh regime.
- The prison is supposed to be a hotbed of paranormal activity filled with the restless sprits of all the unhappy people who lived and died there. In fact, it is in the top 10 of the most haunted places in the USA.
The solitary confinement cells
- The 1987 low-budget horror movie Prison was filmed at the Wyoming Frontier Prison. It was one of the earliest roles of Viggo Mortenson before he found a better use of his talent in the Lord of the Rings trilogy.
The Wyoming Frontier Prison is located at West Walnut Street in Rawlins, Wyoming. Open 8-5 daily during the summer, you are allowed inside only on a guided tour. There is no minimum age requirement for children to go on the tour. Use your discretion with children because the place is spooky. Our tour guide wouldn’t tell us some of the gorier stories because we had children on the tour.
Devils Tower is a national monument in Wyoming which has to be seen to be believed. Seriously. It is a strange geological formation that shoots straight up into the sky 1200 feet from the ground. Theodore Roosevelt thought it was pretty impressive, too, and named it the first national monument in the USA in 1906. They say truth is stranger than fiction – decide for yourself with these Devils Tower facts you think qualifies as among the strangest facts about Devils Tower.
The land around it is relatively flat which makes this formation even more striking (or just plain strange!). The top of Devils Tower is also generally flat. The land at the top is about an acre and a half and home to prairie grass.
Facts About Devils Tower
Here are seven strange facts about this equally strange geological formation:
- Devils Tower is considered an igneous intrusion in the ground. Magma swelled up through the rock, cooled and then hardened. The igneous columns are held together by gravity. None of the columns have fallen in the last 200 years. The last large column fell about 10,000 years ago.
- Devils Tower is a bad translation of what some Native Americans called the structure. There are many different names from various tribes, such as Bear Mountain, Bear Rock and Tree Rock.
- Native Americans have stories about the creation of the structure. Depending on the version, either two boys (or 7 sisters) got lost and were chased by a giant bear. When the children prayed to the gods, the ground rose up into the sky to protect them from the bear. The bear clawed at the bottom making scratch marks but could not climb the structure. In the 7 sisters version, the girls became the stars that we know as the Big Dipper.
- Think you’ve seen it before? You may have seen it in the Steven Spielberg science fiction movie classic, Close Encounters of the Third Kind.
- A couple of Wyoming ranchers made the first climb of Devils Tower in 1893 using a series of wooden ladders pegged into the rock. A crowd of 500 people came to watch the stunt.
- Devils Tower is fully surrounded by columnar basalt which is the same basalt found at Devils Causeway in Northern Ireland.
- There is a legend that there is a gold mine under the Devils Tower. Although there are gold mines and caves in the area, the igneous nature of the formation makes it unlikely. But who knows?
Native Americans tie strips of cloth to trees as prayers at the base of Devils Tower.
Visiting Devils Tower:
You can hike along the bottom of Devils Tower on several separate trails. The easiest option is about 1.3 miles and took us around the perimeter in about half an hour.
You can also climb the formation itself so long as you are registered with the park service. Slightly insane in my opinion but we did see climbers going up on the day we were there. Apparently 4000 people a year do it. Maybe I should add that to my list of strange facts about Devils Tower?